AKBAR The Great Mughal Emperor

Indian History is showing many invasions made on India by western people who came and conquered the land and initiated grave tortures to the people. Many invaders have come to India as it was land of riches and wealth at that period. Their atrocities have made the local people to revolt against them at around 1857 or so. But many great kings also have done Good to the Indian people in the past few hundred years. Among them King Akbar was one.

Akbar, the Great as he is commonly called was a third generation Mughal Emperor. He reigned during 1542-1605 A.D. He was the grandson of Babur who was the founder of this dynasty. Humayun was father of Akbar. He ascended the throne at the age of 13 after his father’s demise. Akbar’s army faced larger forces of Hindu king Hemu with the help of Bairam Khan. He defeated Hemu and captured Delhi on October 6 1556. He occupied most of North India initially after the second battle of Panipat. Akbar has defeated Sher shah Suri who was responsible for his father living in exile in Persia. But Akbar grew up in a village of Rewa called Mukundpur. He extended his Empire to the East which is now Afghanistan. There he was brought up by his Uncle Askar. He learnt to fight and Hunt but did not learn reading and writing. Later after two decades of his righteous rule he has include even most of central India also into his realm. He was known for his good deeds and righteousness. He had very much interest in painting and literature. He had his palace painted with murals while he made many Sanskrit works into Persian language.

Akbar had tremendous religious faith. Of course he was born Muslim, reared as Muslim and died as Muslim. But he respected other religions and use to organize religious debates and spiritual discussions with Hindus and other religions. He founded a religious cult called Din-I-llahi.

Akbar’s first major conquest was Malwa in 1562. Mughal army also conquered the land of Gonds by initiating Asaf khan who was the then Mughal governor of Allahabad. Asaf khan fought with Rani Durgavati, the queen of Gonds. After conquering Malwa he brought under his control the land which is now distributed as Rajasthan, Gujarat and Bengal. His major victory in this campaign was annexion of Chittor in 1568. Chittor was ruled by Maharana Uday Singh. He left the state by putting two warriors to safeguard Chittor. Mughals demolished the whole fort and killed around 30000 men when they tried to resist against Mughal conquer. In memory of two warriors Jaimal and Patta who safe guarded Chittor Akbar raised their stone statues in front of Agra Fort. Two Rajput clans of Chittor were opposed to him. They were Sisodiyas and Hadas. Maharana Pratap of Rajput dynasty still opposed Akbar even after Akbar has taken the reign of Rajputs. In 1572 Akbar captured Ahmedabad which is a land with fertile soils and highly developed crafts. The taxation system, military organization and political government was taken care very meticulously by Akbar which made him successful emperor.

He had his history and life depicted in books called AkbarNama and Ain-I-Akbari by Abul Fazal. He had friendly relationships with Hindus, Christians and Muslims. Akbar has remained ever as one of the great kings in India.

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Crimes Never Go Unpunished

Any action by one person affecting the rights and properties of another person is an aberration. When such aberration is small and unintentional, it’s known as ‘Mistake.’ Slapping a person in anger is a mistake. If the action is a calculated one causing damages and serious losses to the other person, the mistake becomes a ‘Crime.’ Deliberate slapping to insult a person is a crime. Any upright person would regret for the mistake and avert its recurrence. However, a crime must attract punishment to make the person repent and deter him from committing any crime. The laws of the society are mainly intended for maintaining and upholding the peaceful existence and the rights of the citizens. Criminal laws are for the specific purpose of controlling and penalizing the crimes.

Going by the Bible of Christianity, the first crime seems to be made by Adam when he disobeyed God’s instruction to keep away from the apple tree of Satan. The result was disastrous that man was cursed to suffer by repeating the same mistake of selfish love and the procreation.

A bank manager was arrested after 22 years for his involvement in a corruption for sanctioning a huge loan to a fictitious export firm. A retired government officer had a double punishment of seizure of personal assets and imprisonment for three years for his fraudulent issuing of fake building permits for constructing buildings on the public lands such as lakes and rivers.

A politician amassed huge wealth by employing corruption methods cleverly that no evidence or witness would be left to trace the crime. Till date, no convincing case could be filed against him. The punishment meted out to him is the loss of powers as his party was defeated in the subsequent elections. A former President of a country served a longterm in the jail for his dictatorship causing immeasurable atrocities and unpardonable crimes.

One may commit crimes without leaving any evidence and go unpunished under the laws of the land. However, the conscience of that person will gradually kill him. Alternatively, his family and next generations are destined to suffer the effects of earlier crimes. Otherwise, the death brings the end to his crimes. All religions agree that God punishes him. Hinduism believes that the soul of the dead takes another birth as a human or a creature of the lower order to suffer the pending punishment depending on the magnitude of crime committed in the last birth.

Truth is simple and easy to handle. No botheration of remembering and recollecting. Truth alone wins ultimately.

Source by Mohan Thulasingam

Motivational Stories: The Story of B.R. Ambedkar

If there is any man who has successfully fought adversary all through his life, not only from fate but also from his own countrymen, it has to be Dr. B.R. Ambedkar – the main creator of the Constitution of the largest democracy in the world – India. What makes his life so inspiring for people who find themselves in impossible situations is the fact that Dr. Ambedkar was born in a family that was one of the millions of families in India (and still is) that was treated apathetically, and sometimes even inhumanly, by the so-called higher castes. The way he managed to get himself educated and the manner in which he fought against all the obstacles while rising to the most prestigious position in the country is remarkable.

Dr. Ambedkar, or Bhim as he was called by his mother, first suffered due to the prejudice of casteism in India when he first went to school. In India, Hindus have built a ridiculous caste system where the lowermost classes are called ‘untouchables’ and they are treated just as the name suggests. The ‘untouchables’ were, and in fact still are, not allowed to stay in the village but on the outskirts. They are not allowed to drink water from the same well and they were not even allowed to worship in the same temple. Bhim was born in such a caste.

As he grew up, Bhim started observing how he and his family were treated by the other members of the society. There was this incident in his school which is said to have really motivated him. On one of his initial days in school, he was ordered to stand in a far off corner of the room, away from the upper caste students. This is how he spent his days in school and he still managed to be the most brilliant student in his class. However, being from the lower caste, he wasn’t appreciated at all by his teachers. This didn’t stop him from keeping on shining in his studies.

Bhim had to face many more obstacles as a student in his teenage years as well. When he wanted to learn Sanskrit, the language of the ancient Indian holy scriptures, he was denied the permission to do so for he was from the lower castes. However, he still managed to learn Sanskrit on his own later in life. He had to face countless insults from his fellow students and his teachers. Inspite of all the adversaries, he passed the matriculation examination and was the first from his community to do so. Further, he wanted to go abroad for higher studies but didn’t have enough money to do so. The Maharaja of Baroda came to the rescue with a scholarship for exceptional students and Bhim qualified for that very strongly.

He went to California University where he studied Economics and Sociology. The freedom and equality that he experienced in America had a profound impact on him. He had never experienced so much freedom and so much respite from the caste prejudices of his own country. After a lot of ups and downs he finally completed his education, but his educational qualifications didn’t mean anything to his own countrymen who still saw his caste first and not the man.

He lead many protests, mainly peaceful, and through great perseverance made his way up to being the father of the Indian Constitution. He had to face much pain, suffering and insult on the way but his sheer mental strength and his resolve to fight injustice provided him with all the power in the world to keep on fighting till the end. He died being an inseparable part of the great personalities who have shaped modern India.

Source by Jeremiah Say

The Big Plush Toy and Toys Through History

If you ever had the opportunity to take a peek into every child’s bedroom in North America, you would undoubtedly discover one thing they all have in common: at least one stuffed animal resides there – perhaps a big plush toy. Regardless of its size, however, you can count on the fact that every child has some kind of plush toy, whether it’s been mass manufactured or hand made.

From the earliest of times, children have played with toys. Despite the fact that life expectancy was much shorter than it is today and there was an overwhelming need for children to grow up as fast as possible so they could farm, hunt, and fight, toys were always played with. Ever since children figured out how to play, all over the world, they began making improvised toys. Toys were once made of things that could be found in the environment such as grass, straw, leaves, shells, and pieces of wood. Add to that some found fabric and pebbles, and a toy was born. Over time, toys began to evolve like everything else; we eventually came to know the rattle, the ball, the doll, the spinning top and even toys on wheels.

Long before the sophisticated civilizations of the Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians, children had already created lives that were rich with play. An abundance of toys as well as illustrations have been uncovered in ruins, graves, and archeological excavations which prove this to be true. While some of the things discovered have been votive figures used for worshipping, there have also been discoveries of less well crafted items such as rattles, dolls, animals, balls, hoops, kites, rocking horses, boats, miniature furniture, and wheeled pull-along toys. Any of what has been found that was able to survive, was made of clay, bone, metal, or stone, while drawings show still other toys that were made of wood, leather, and cloth.

Evidence has shown that toys were being exported as early as 1000 BCE around the Mediterranean by Phoenician merchants. In the Old Testament, references to children’s play abound; there are descriptions of children’s street play in the Book of Zechariah which says “and the streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls playing in the streets thereof.” In Jerusalem, archeologists have uncovered whistles, toy rattles, cooking utensils, animals, and furniture, which is believed to have come from 1050 BCE – the time of David.

It was not uncommon for newborns to receive gifts of amulets and toys at ceremonies that took place between the seventh and tenth day after the child had been born. In March and April, in Greece, Greek children anxiously awaited the arrival of The Anthesterien Festival (or Feast of the New Wine) in which a celebration of the dead took place. On the second day of the festival, the parents gave children gifts which consisted of small jugs called oinochoes – there were decorations on them of children’s games. When birthdays arrived, they were also given toys as presents. To celebrate Christs’ birth, The Three Wise Men brought gifts and now as far as the toy industry is concerned, Christmas is a major part of their most profitable selling seasons. At the major religious festivals of Hindus, Muslims, and Jews – Diwali, Ede, and Hanukkah – toys are also given.

No matter how a child comes by a big plush toy, even if it was made by their own hand, the joy it will bring them will be limitless. They will enjoy countless hours of play with what they will quickly discover to be their new best friend. Whether or not children lived centuries ago or they live today, their toys all share something in common: the need to have fun and play. What is used to make them and how they are made are the only differences.

Copyright Shelley Vassall, 2010.

Source by Shelley Vassall