Three Periods In The History Of The Kannada Language

Kannada is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and has an antiquity of not less than two thousand years. Kannada is one among the first 30 most spoken languages in the world; spoken mostly in the state of Karnataka, India and by more than 50 million speakers worldwide.

Kannada belongs to the Southern Dravidian Language family, usually the history of Kannada language can be divided into three main periods as follows.

1) Halegannada: meaning Proto-Kannada period ranging between the 6th and 11th centuries.

The Proto-Kannada period is preceded by the Pre-old Kannada dates back to the 1st or 2nd century AD. Only some fragmented references could be made of this period and the recorded details are mostly obscure. Over 30000 inscriptions have been identified having old Kannada written on them, the earliest being the inscription by Kongunivarma of Ganga dynasty (about 250 AD) in the old Mysore region. The Halegannada period marks a beginning in about 450 AD; the reference could be made of Halmidi inscription where there is a citation of Kannada being used as an official language. Apart from rock inscriptions references could be made of copper plate inscriptions and inscriptions on coins. Amoghavarsha Nrupatunga, the famous Rastrakuta ruler’s Kavirajamarga (850 AD), the triplet metered poetic work of Kappe Aryabhata (700 AD), Vaddaradhane (900 AD) by Shivakotyacharya are the well known literary works of the period. Pampa, Ranna and Ponna are the major poets.

2) Nadugannada – meaning Middle Kannada period ranging between the 12th and 18th centuries.

The Nadugannada period is highlighted by drastic transitions, newer forms of composition such as Ragale, a type of blank verse and meters such as Shatpadi, a 6 line poems, Vachana and also Sangathya. The literature of this period is influenced by Hinduism and Jainism as well. Harihara, Raghavanka, Kumara Vyasa and Janna are the major poets; Basavanna, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi are the major exponents of the Vachana literature. The works of Vachana literature are simple and lucid, they were written to be easily understood by the common man. The Bhakti movement in Karnataka gave prominent contributions to Caranatic style of music. Haridasas (servants of Lord Vishnu) such as Kanakadasa, and Purandaradasa are the major exponents of Dasa sahithya during the Bhakthi movement.

3) Hosagannada – meaning Modern Kannada period starting from the 18th century to the present day.

The period of Hosagannada is the modern Kannada period, influenced by the colonial literature and western culture imbibed in it the literary ideas not only of the west but of Bengali and Marathi too. The Wodeyars of Mysore were the early patrons of Hosagannada literature. Navodaya-the period of awakening, Navya- the modernist approach, Bandaaya- the protestant literature, Navyothara-after the awakening era are all the different phases of modern Kannada literature. B. M. Srikantaiah, Panje Mangesharaya, Kuvempu, Govinda Pai, D. R. Bendre, Masthi Venkatesha Iyengar, Shivarama Karantha. Nissar Ahmed, G. S. Shivarudrappa is some of the major poets. S. L. Bhyrappa, Girish Karnad, Poornachandra Tejasvi are the major critic writers. The modern Kannada literature is a firmly established one; it is very creative and responsive; it has bagged as many 8 Jnanpith awards, highest by any Indian language; taking into consideration the number of speakers.

Source by Devid John Jakson

Ficus – Information & Facts

Ficus trees, which have over 800 species, are native to Indo Australian region, Central and South America and Africa. Lets have a look at their propagation techniques, common varieties and interesting facts.


Starting new plants is known as propagation. You can easily multiply the number of your ficus plants by a few methods like cutting and seed germination. Cutting is an easy method to propagate ficus. Take about 5 nodes long cutting and prune all leaves and branches off it except a couple of leaves at the top. Dip the base in rooting hormone(not mandatory). Plant this cutting in rich moist soil. Keep the soil moist all the time.

You can easily obtain ficus seeds if you have a ficus tree that produces fruit. Interestingly, fruits of some ficus species have up to 4000 seeds in a single fruit. Needless to say, seeds can also be bought from sellers, but there is nothing like fresh organic seeds. Now plant these seeds in rich moist soil. Add some Peat moss to the soil (not mandatory). Keep the soil moist. It can take months for the seedling to emerge.

Some Common Varieties

Ficus Midnight

Ficus Starlight

Ficus Hispida

Ficus Benjamina

Ficus Golden King

Ficus Bonsai

Interesting Facts

There are about 850 identified species of ficus.

It is an important tree from a religious point of view and have much importance in quite a few religions including Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism.

One of the oldest ficus trees is in Sri Lanka which according to history records was planted back in 288 B.C.

Source by David J R

Why Are Diamonds Used As Engagement Rings?

The Diamond Ring

We are all looking to be happy, infinitely happy, content with the person we are with, secure in the knowing that he/she will always be there for us come what may. You may be thinking of proposing this year. Maybe they are expecting it or maybe it is completely out of the blue, either way it has the impact that lasts a lifetime. Being in love instantly attracts us to all the beautiful things around us, sunsets, walks along the beach, holding hands in the cinema, romancing and doing those little things for each other that lets us know we are loved. We also begin to appreciate giving, giving time, giving compliments, giving little gifts and giving big gifts.

Giving diamond jewellery is a perfect big gift.

The healing properties of diamonds

Diamonds, it is believed, have a particular effect on the wearer, bringing clarity, unity and fidelity hence chosen as the primary stone in engagement rings. But before you even go down that road you may want to know more about the perfect engagement ring and why we use diamonds. Part of our new found love for each other is the tradition of proposing with a luxury engagement ring. Giving a precious jewel on the day you propose adds more sparkle and magic than you know.

Diamonds represent faithfulness, love, purity, innocence, and relationships filled with love. They are believed to remove certain types of disturbances in the aura. Diamond jewellery inspires creativity, ingenuity, faith, endurance, and helps in manifesting abundance in all areas of life. As the hardest known mineral, (Moissanite being the second hardest) it is especially esteemed owing to its beauty, purity, and ability to reflect light depending on the cut used. Wearing a diamond encourages clarity, and clear positive resolution of all problems that bother us. Diamonds work together with other crystals in accentuating their vibratory healing properties.

In Hinduism diamonds are associated with the planet Venus, while some other ancient cultures believed that they are connected to the planet Mars. The latter is probably due to the warriors’ custom of wearing diamond stones in battle for protection and strength. It was thought that diamonds make the warriors invincible and that they fortify their muscles. The Greek word for diamond – adamas – which means invincible may support this belief. According to Hindu astrology diamonds are considered auspicious if worn on a Friday and should be at least.59 carats in weight but preferably 1.5 carats. The back of the diamond needs to touch the skin of the wearer, and there are very in-depth processes for blessing the ring prior to wearing it. These include washing the ring in various liquids and reciting mantras.

When wearing diamonds for astrological benefits you need to have had it prescribed for you and if the diamond does not touch the skin it will not have any effect. It would be prescribed by a Hindu Pundit, if you choose to wear one without the confirmation you can risk negative effects occurring, such as health, wealth and relationship issues.

The most famous diamond in the world the Koh-I-Noor has a significant history and is believed to be a 5000 year old gem from India. With a colourful history it is thought to have destroyed those dynasties whose leaders were male.

The gem was presented to Queen Victoria by Dileep Singh in 1851 and ever since has been passed down to the wife of the male heir to the British throne. The British Royal family may well be aware of the Curse of the Kohinoor – ‘He who owns this diamond will own the world, but will also know all its misfortunes. Only God, or a woman, can wear it with impunity.’ This may be the reason women are presented with a diamond ring when proposed to whereas men tend not to wear diamond rings but stick to gold wedding bands.

Choosing the Perfect Ring

For the most of us however the ring is not purchased for its healing properties and in the west the healing aspect is not even recognised so no need to worry about inauspicious occurrences.

There are many different styles of luxury engagement rings from your traditional solitaire to the more detailed split shank engagement ring with its vast design options. Celebrity style engagement rings, 3 stone, 5 stone or 7 stone/half eternity rings. The list goes on so if you are thinking of proposing this year find out exactly what she likes if you are not sure ask a few of her friends who may be able to give you an idea of what she likes.

Diamond jewellery or quality gemstone jewellery appeals to our senses during this heightened romantic engagement period. The sparkle of the gems, the beauty they exude and the happiness they bring when purchasing and presenting to your loved one, are second to none.

Also keep in mind your budget, suggested cost is about 1 month salary, remember this ring needs to last a lifetime.

Source by Simriya Singh

Guyana Interesting Facts

Guyana is one of the beautiful places. It has many things to offer to its tourists. It is rightly called the land of waters, as it has Atlantic Ocean to its north. Here are some interesting facts about Guyana.

Guyana Interesting Facts:

* Guyana is the third smallest country on the mainland of South America.

* English is the widely spoken language of the people here, and Guyana is considered the only English speaking country in South America.

* It also has four non-Spanish speaking territories in the continent.

* Besides English, Amerindian dialects, Creole, Hindi and Urdu are spoken by many people here.

* Christianity, Hinduism, Islam are the three major religions of the people here, even though there are many other religions.

* The capital of Guyana is Georgetown. Guyana gained its independence from its last oppressors in the year 1966, but it took four years to become a republic in 1970.

* Guyanese dollar is the currency of Guyana.

* The longest river in Guyana is the Essequibo River.

* It has gold mines, and Omai Gold mines is one of the largest open-pit gold mines in South America.

* Like many other countries, Guyana has selected Victoria Amazonia as their national flower. Hoatzin is its national bird, which is also known as Canje Pheasant.

* Guyana has almost everything that one would like to see by traveling all over the world.

* It has beautiful water falls. Tall, standing trees with leaves that gives off a sweet aroma.

To put it as simple as one can, Guyana is hidden treasure in its every single corner, and the treasure is the beauty inherited from nature.

Source by Pauline Go